Olivera was arrested on Apr. 13 after allegedly assaulting a woman in suburban Washington D.C. at the Braves' team hotel. The woman, who had visible bruising, called 911 at 6:51 am with the report.
Olivera's suspension, which is retroactive to Apr. 30, will last 82 games.
The 31-year-old signed a six-year, $62.5 million deal with the Dodgers in March 2015 after defecting from Cuba.
He was traded to the Braves in a three-team deal that sent Mat Latos to the Dodgers in late July last year. He received a cup of coffee in the Majors, playing in the first 21 games of his career.
Olivera has a career 108 plate appearances over two seasons, and he has hit .245/.296/.378 with two home runs and 13 RBIs in 30 games. According to FanGraphs, he has been worth -0.2 Wins Above Replacement for his short career.
Olivera becomes the third player to have been disciplined under Major League Baseball's new domestic violence policy. Yankees closer Aroldis Chapman and Rockies shortstop Jose Reyes were each handed suspensions earlier in the year.